• R&D Center @FGC UES, JSC
    RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER AT FEDERAL GRID COMPANY OF UNIFIED ENERGY SYSTEM, JOINT STOCK COMPANY
  • R&D Center @FGC UES, JSC
    RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER AT FEDERAL GRID COMPANY OF UNIFIED ENERGY SYSTEM, JOINT STOCK COMPANY
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    RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER AT FEDERAL GRID COMPANY OF UNIFIED ENERGY SYSTEM, JOINT STOCK COMPANY
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Company news
15.07.11 The division head of the researches in the sphere of the superconductivity Victor Sytnikov (R&D Center for power engineering) made the appearance to the FGS UES management personnel
The second appearance under the formed plan of the monthly statements of the “R&D Center for power engineering” leading researches was held for the management personnel of the “FGS UES” JSC.
12.07.11 The representatives of “R&D Center for power engineering” JSC took part in the innovative projects expertise under the forum “Seliger-2011”
From July 6 till July 7, 2011 the specialists of “R&D Center for power engineering” took part in the R&D innovative projects expertise from the youth innovative center “System-Sarov” in the line of “energy efficiency and power saving” under the National youth forum “Seliger-2011”
04.07.11 Siemens LLC and “R&D Center for power engineering” signed the cooperation agreement
The opening ceremony of the plant “Siemens HV devices” LLC (Voronezh) was held the 1 June 2011.

INFORMATION MODELS (SIM) FOR ELECTRIC POWER EQUIPMENT
Common Information Model (CIM) is a general information model or an “abstract model that depicts the multitude of electric power system elements in a standard format as objects, their parameters and linkages between these objects. This unified description format allows for integration of various applications developed by independent manufacturers.” (IEC-61970-301)

Smart control systems for electric power grids are complex entities with multiple regional and functional applications that consist of several interconnected application systems, each of which is also an independent and autonomous component. These complicated hierarchical systems with multiple components integrated by information and controls can be built only with commonly accepted unification methods used by developers worldwide.

RDCPE developed a first edition (profile) of a common electric energy system information model to be deployed by FGC UES that is based on МЭК standards 61968 and 61970-301 (third edition). The work was done under the auspices of the project to create a unified common information model for Russia’s energy systems.

The purpose of the profile is to ensure information interaction between separate application systems to support the function of the active/adaptive network.





Background

A new generation of integrated complexes for smart grid automated control systems can be developed based only on both existing and specially designed information technology standards. The architecture of the smart control system of active-adaptive networks is a regionally and functionally divided infrastructure that consists of interrelated application systems, each of which is an independent and autonomous component. This multi-component system with high degree of complexity and hierarchy and a number of integrated components by information and control can be developed only based on common unification methods accepted by all developers worldwide. All integrated components should use unified information model, classifier and reference systems, data structure, unified system parameter data in real time, commercial energy metering data and a common geoinformation system. The unification issue becomes even more acute due to the electric energy sector reform as the number of independent companies and regions engaged in generation, transmission, distribution and consumption of electric power has grown exponentially. As the reform unfolded, all developers came up with their own approaches for the information model they used. Therefore, the model that emerged consisted of “data islands” which naturally led to challenges in data exchange and reduced reliability of Russia’s energy systems as a whole.

The development of the control system for information support of control and management of the grid and network modes should be guided by the primary goal of creating, at a minimum, a unified information system within one company, and a unified data transmission system. Any complex system always includes multiple resources for acquisition, transmission, storage and processing of information, including legacy applications, inter-application exchange and information output for the end user. All these factors taken together make up the system’s information space, or a totality of means and methods for acquisition, processing, exchange, storage and output of information.

The information space includes the following components:

  • information resources;
  • information interaction;
  • information infrastructure.


Information resources are a totality of data organized in a manner designed to ensure effective access to the required, accurate information.

Information interaction is a process of interaction between two or more subjects of the information space with the primary goal of altering the composition or content of the information resources of at least one subject.

Information infrastructure is a totality of organizational and software/hardware systems supporting the function and development of the information interaction.
The sole goal of the implementation of the information space is to support the interaction of information systems (applications) in order to create an integrated control system. As the system being developed includes a high number of various programs and technologies integrated by both data and controls, this system may be developed only with common unification methods accepted by all developers.

Information spaces may be developed using one of two principles: a priori or a posteriori. An example of the latter is a merger of multiple systems utilizing a point-to-point principle. In this example, each application creates its own information model of a physical facility with its own information structure and attendant linkages without giving any thought to their interaction needs. In this scenario, designing communication links between separate applications becomes a clear challenge that often hampers system development by turning complex entities into a so-called spaghetti dish.

An example of a priori principle is a unified information space utilizing a “common busbar” principle. Under this scenario there is a common information model of any given facility, and its application exchange data based on a common description. A suitable method for creating this type of information space and information exchange between it is subjects is based on data exchange algorithms guided by a common information model (CIM). A CIM is a conceptual model used to describe different environmental objects with object-oriented terminology. Until recently, the terms of object—oriented technology were found only in programming languages (like C+++ or Java); CIM expands these terms and employs them to describe information spaces, borrowing the terminology of object-oriented programming like classes, features, methods and associations. Essentially, CIM is an information model used for a common representation of data structures regardless of their origin and application.

The backbone of the information space is formed by information resources; a common technical foundation for unification of information resources in the electric energy sector may be informed by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards IEC 61968 and IEC 61970. These standards envisage a general information model for the electric energy sector, which is an “abstract model that casts the diversity of elements of the electric power systems as standard descriptions of objects, their features and interconnecting linkages.” This standard description allows to integrate various applications developed by independent producers (IEC 61970-301). Figure 3 shows an example of a very basic switchgear, which includes two busbars and switches. The system information model, adjusted for topological data, is created by picturing the circuit elements as impeders linked by abstract connection nodes with zero resistance.
However, using these standards without adapting them to specific applications is both inappropriate and excessive. Implementation of these standards requires development of the data profile for a specific application or a set of applications. A profile is a variation of a standard with the same syntax and semantic linkages as well as relationships between its integral elements. The standard and its profile should be expressed in UML language, using appropriate instruments. The R&D Center for the Electric Energy Sector has developed profiles for all essential elements of the electric energy system, including power lines, transformers, compensators, switchgear equipment, etc., including the organizational structure of Russia’s electric energy sector.

A standard profile consists of two parts. The first is an information model (i.e. “equipment model”) for the certain type of equipment as a physical unit. For this model the set of elements is represented as a hierarchical graph. The model determines basic reference data and condition of the equipment. Specific parts of the model may not even be involved in the current process (for instance, they may still be in storage). This information model works well for arranging repairs, managing relationships with power consumers and storing reference information on equipment and facilities, including manufacturers, dates of installation, history of malfunctions and repairs, and other important parameters, such as allowable minimum and maximum limits.

The second is an information model for the same type of equipment designed to build mathematical models of electric networks. The second type of model (“bus-switch”) depicts a non-oriented graph with hardware as nodes and power lines as branches. This model contains information required for day-to-day control, including the description of topological links within the electric energy system. Using the data on system topology, the “bus-switch” model may also include a topological model “node-branch”. “Bus-switch” model is used primarily by dispatchers, while “node-branch” model informs the resolution of complex day-to-day system operation issues.

However, the graph model alone without translating the underlying data into the format understood by most computers has limited utility. As it commonly happens, abstract math provides instruments that can rise to the task. These instruments represent concepts borrowed from ontology, the study of formal representation of knowledge. They include resource languages like RDF (Resource Description Framework) and OWL (Open Web Ontology Language). Both of these are based on XML syntax. RDF is a basic language describing knowledge; OWL is based on RDF and expands its semantic capabilities. For the purposes of model development, OWL is used for the abstract model described above, and RDF for specific objects. RDF and OWL allow for unequivocal and uniform description of data that applications can exchange without any loss of meaning. Data exchange means that an application, for instance, “assessment of condition”, operating with some internal data model, is able to translate information on its status into the RDF format, while other applicants at various nodes of the network will accept this information to fulfill their respective functions. Usually an abstract model is described as CIM/RDF, and its specific implementation example as CIM/XML.

The basic concept of RDF is that any element of the environment may be described with three terms (triple): subject, object, predicate. A subject is the thing being described, an object is a specific meaning of one of its attributes, and predicate is the name of the attribute that needs to be described (i.e. the name of the link between the subject and the object). In our case, all CIM classes represent subjects, predicates are their attributes, including relationships with other classes, and objects are specific sets of symbols that determine meaning, or references to other classes. The totality of three terms is called a statement. The basic building clock of RDF – the triade of subject-predicate-object – is often captured as S(P,O), i.e. a subject S has an attribute of P and an object O. This notation is quite useful, because RDF allows for interchangeability of subjects and objects, i.e. any subject may also serve as object.

Besides “statement”, the second fundamental concept in RDF is known as URI. URI is a generalization of a well known concept of URL (Uniform Resource Locator) which determines the site’s location in the World Wide Web. URI may be created by any developer or a group of developers to describe common resources, their attributes and meanings. URI does not limit the description of items to their network location alone (which URL does) but allows to describe any number of items with certain attributes. Strictly speaking, RDF uses an URI statement (URIref) for unequivocal identification of objects, meanings and attributes. URI includes the URI itself and the fragment it describes, which follows after a # separator. A “URI#” entry defines a certain space of names, which may contain the subjects being integrated. For instance, a statement http://iec.ch/TC57/2008/CIM-schema-cim13#”Breaker” defines subject “Breaker” in the space «iec.ch/TC57/2008/CIM-schema-cim13».

RDF makes it possible to formally describe Breaker and BreakerAsset type subjects with information interaction of any applications as <rdf:RDF
<rdf:RDF
1. xmlns:cim=”iec.ch/TC57/2008/CIM-schema-cim13#”>
2. <сim:Breaker rdf:ID=”Breaker_1”>
3. <!-- «Breaker class Predicates» -->
4. </cim:Breaker rdf:ID= Breaker_1>
5. <cim:AssetPsrRole=”Role_1”>
6. < cim:AssetPsrRole.Asset rdf:resourse=”#BreakerAsset_1”/>
7. < cim:AssetPsrRole.PowerSystemResource =”#Breaker_1”
8. </cim:AssetPsrRole>
9. <сim:BreakerAsset rdf:ID=”BreakerAsset_1”>
10. <!-- «BreakerAsset class Predicates» -->
11. </cim:BreakerAsset rdf:ID= BreakerAsset_1>
12. </rdf:RDF>

The first line in the example defines URI of the name space (xmlns) and its name (cim), lines 1, 4 and 8 identify class subjects in the cim-defined name space by the predicate a RDF:ID, and subject AssetPsrRole (lines 4 through 6) describes the relationship between cim: Breaker and cim: BreakerAsset in accordance with recommendations.

This method can be used to describe profiles of any degree of complexity, and this description plugged with actual data allows for the uniform data exchange between all interacting applications. As this example also makes clear, each interacting application has to understand identification (predicate rdf:ID) of transmitted subjects. Therefore, successful interaction requires a common, uniform system of subject identification and predicate definition within CIM/XML files.

Development of the information model for a complex system will require systematic implementation of several subsequent steps, and in some cases will call for revisiting completed steps, however, the final CIM model will serve as a powerful mechanism for streamlining data description within energy system control systems, and will ensure system development and data exchange mechanisms within the system and among adjacent systems.

Source: "Common information space as foundation for the development of integrated control system for Russia’s electric power systems. "
M. I. Londer (RDCPE), A. V. Tumakov (Detsima LLC).

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